The first term (September-January) includes lectures on the fundamental concepts and tools of quantum photonics and electronics in condensed matter, high-tech analysis tools (electronic microscopy, STM, AFM…), a large panorama of quantum devices and functionalized materials and proposes a series of seminars on hot research topics.

The second term (January-June) details the different fields of research (Electronic transport, Spintronics, Quantum Photonics) and includes a research project.

New teaching units will come into effect at the start of the 2019/2020 academic year and will include a course on Quantum Computation and a course on Two-dimensional Materials.

The course is given by lecturers from several laboratories specializing in quantum devices and nanosystems.The training is based on a permanent interaction between students and research teams, and includes: experimental projects, guided tours of laboratories and a research project.

TRAINING COURSE | |

FIRST TERM | ECTS |

Electrons and phonons in nanostructures | 3 |

Quantum theory of light | 3 |

Advanced solid state physics | 3 |

Photonic quantum devices | 3 |

Electronic quantum devices | 3 |

Bidimensional Materials | 3 |

Nano-objects at the nanoscale | 3 |

Experimental projects in nanosciences | 6 |

Visits to Labs | 3 |

SECOND TERM | |

Quantum Computing | 3 |

Quantum Communication | 3 |

Nanomagnetism and spintronics | 3 |

Functional materials | 3 |

Internship | 18 |

**First semester**

**ELECTRONS AND PHONONS IN NANOSTRUCTURES (3ECTS)**

Professors :

- Christophe Voisin (Prof. UP, LPENS),
- Emmanuelle Deleporte (Prof. ENS Cachan, LPQM),
- Francesca Carosella (MCF UP, LPENS)

### Program:

**Fundamentals of Solid State Physics**

- Band structure and Bloch theorem
- Density of states
- Effective mass
- Overview of phonons

**Envelope function approximation**

**Electron/phonons interaction: weak coupling regime**

- Fermi golden rule
- Rabi oscillations
- Importance of energy loss in opto-electronic devices

**Electron/phonons interaction: strong coupling regime**

- Polarons in quantum dots
- Energy relaxation within polaron framework

**QUANTUM THEORY OF LIGHT (3ECTS)**

- Edouard Boulat (MCF UP,MPQ),
- Loïc Lanco (MCF UP, C2N)

### Program:

**Semi-classical theory of light matter interaction**

- Free particle of Spin 1/2
- Jauge invariance of Schroedinger equation ; Pauli Hamiltonian
- Semiclassical theory of light – matter interaction
- Electron-field interaction and Fermi golden rule ; transition rate

**Quantum nature of light: photons**

- Fock space
- Operators : electric field, momentum, photon number
- The Casimir effect
- Special states of the electromagnetic field : coherent states, squeezed states

**Photon emission and absorption**

- Hamiltonian electron-photon; revisiting the Fermi golden rule
- Spontaneous and stimulated emission
- Natural linewidth
- Dipolar electric emission
- Diffusion of a photon from an atom

**ADVANCED SOLID STATE PHYSICS (3ECTS)**

Professors :

- Alain Sacuto (Prof. UP, MPQ)
- Francesco Sottile (DR CNRS, LSI, École Polytechnique)
- Fausto Sirotti (DR CNRS, PMC, École Polytechnique)

### Program:

**Reminder of solid state physics and Introduction** (F. Sottile)

Scope of this first introductory session is to give the outline of the course, remind few concepts of basic solid-state theory, and assess the knowledge of the students on the different topics.

- Electrons and nuclei
- Born-Oppenheimer approximation
- Bloch theorem
- spin and k-points
- Magnetism (diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, anti-ferromagnetic, etc.)

**Superconductivity** (A. Sacuto)

An introduction to Superconductivity:

- Introduction to a short story of superconductivity and its fascinating properties
- The quest of very low temperature
- The discovery of superconductivity
- The high-Tc superconductors
- Their properties with experiments performed during the lecture

The Cooper’s model :

- Bound electrons in a degenerate Fermi gaz
- The superconducting gap

A first approach to the microscopic theory of Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer (BCS)

- Description of the ground state
- The BCS Hamiltonian
- The energy of the ground state and the superconducting gap

Signatures of the superconductivity in some spectroscopy probes

- Tunnelling and ARPES
- Infrared and Raman
- NMR

**Electronic structure, the ground state** (F. Sottile)

The electronic problem is introduced. In particular the state-of-the-art approach for the ground-state, Density Functional theory is presented. The needs for certain spectroscopy, introduced here, stimulates the need for the next experimental sessions.

- Ground-state quantities (lattice parameters, phonons, Bulk modulus, phase transitions)
- The many-body problem: independent particles
- Hartree and Hartree-Fock approaches
- Koopmans’s theorem and self-interaction concerns
- Density Functional Theory (theory, approximations and examples)
- Band-structure and Density of States
- Absorption in DFT ?

**Photoemission and Spectroscopy** (F. Sirotti)

- Energy and momentum conservation
- ARPES, XPS, Spin-resolution
- Bulk surfaces and interfaces, Cross sections,
- Experimental issues: Ultra High Vacuum, X-rays sources, Electron energy analyzers,
- Examples

**Green’s functions theory I** (F. Sottile)

The green’s function approach is presented, wih particular emphasis on the one-particle Green’s function, that contains the removal and addiction energies of the electrons, for a direct comparison with photoemission spectroscopy.

- The need for the Green’s function
- Spectral representation
- The self-energy
- Hedin’s equations
- The GW approximations
- Quasiparticle and satellites
- Results and examples

**X-ray absorption ellispometry** (F. Sirotti)

- Valence spectroscopy and ellipsometry
- Core electrons: XAS, XANES, EXAFS,
- Magnetic systems: Linear and circular Dichroism
- Applications

**Green’s functions theory I****I** (F. Sottile)

Absorption spectroscopy require the two-particle Green’s function, which is presented briefly here.

- The need for the two-particle Green’s function
- The Bethe-Salpeter equation
- 4 points quantities
- Results and examples

**Scattering spectroscopies and TDDFT** (F. Sottile and F. Sirotti)

Scattering spectroscopies are presented in the first half of the session, namely Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy and Inelastic X-ray Scattering. This gives the occasion to introduced the concept of screening and the theoretical approach Time Dependent Density Functional Theory.

- scattering process and the inverse dielectric function
- electron energy loss
- electron microscope
- inelastic x-ray scattering
- experimental resolution: energy, momentum, space, time
- Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (theory, linear response and polarizability, approximations and applications)

**PHOTONICS QUANTUM DEVICES (3ECTS)**

Professors :

- C. Sirtori (Prof. ENS, LPENS)
- A. Vasanelli (Prof. UP, LPENS)

### Program:

- Introduction: the world of technology
- Band structure and envelope function approximation
- Light-matter interaction in confined systems (Condensed matter physics)

o Interaction Hamiltonian

o Electric dipole approximation

o Bulk semiconductors transition rate - Laser diodes

o Bernard-Duraffourg condition

o Waveguides

o Quantum well transition rate

o impact of confinement on the performances - Quantum cascade lasers

o Band engineering: coupled quantum wells and tunneling

o Rate equations and optical gain

o Laser characteristics: Unpolarity and cascade - Infrared photodetector

o QWIP/QCD - Optical and electronic resonators: circuits and microcavities à optics and electronics
- Surface plasmons
*Optomechanics*- Light-matter strong coupling and superradiance

**ELECTRONIC QUANTUM DEVICES (3ECTS)**

Professors :

- Philippe Joyez (DR SPEC, CEA Saclay)
- Philippe Lafarge (Prof. UP, MPQ)

### Program:

- Rappels de physique des solides : structures de bandes, métaux, semiconducteurs, phonons, transport diffusif…
- Seconde quantification
- Transport quantique : longueurs caractéristiques, quantification de la conductance, formule de Landauer, bruit de courant dans les conducteurs quantiques, localisation…
- Electrons en champ magnétique : niveaux de Landau, effet Hall quantique entier, fractionnaire, états de bord.
- Supraconductivité : Théorie BCS, effet Josephson, supraconductivité mésoscopique, réflexion d’Andreev.
- Transport dans les nanotubes de carbone.

**BIDIMENSIONAL MATERIALS (3ECTS)**

Professors :

- Clément Barraud (MCF UP, MPQ)
- Jérôme Lagoute (CR CNRS, MPQ)
- Yann Gallais (Prof. UP, MPQ)

### Program:

Since the discovery of graphene with its remarkable transport and optical properties, the field of two-dimensional crystals has flourished, and many materials can now be studied down to the single atomic layers. Compared to bulk materials two dimensional materials provide highly tunable platforms for novel functionalities and exotic opto-electronic phenomena. The goal of this course is to give an overview of this vibrant field by providing some basic concepts of two-dimensional materials (device fabrication, electronic and optical properties) and then focus on a selection of recent developments in the field (van der Waals heterostructures, defect engineering, di-chalcogenides, topological insulators…).

We will first review the basics of the physical properties of graphene with an emphasis on the properties of graphene-based devices and the means to characterize them. We will then introduce the physics of other two-dimensional materials like di-chalcogenides and black phosphorus which have been discovered more recently and whose optical and electrical properties differs from graphene. The course will end by an introduction to the unusual two-dimensional electronic states that forms at the surface of topological insulators.

**The Physics of graphene and its devices (12h)**

- Introduction: graphene and its band-structure
- Transport properties of graphene devices
- Optical properties and application to opto-electronic devices
- Local spectroscopies and defect engineering
- Graphene based heterostructures and van der Waals engineering: concept and fabrication

**Beyond graphene: dichalcogenides, black phosphorus and topological insulators (12h)**

- Introduction to dichalcogenides and their band structure in the 2D limit: the case of semiconducting MoS
_{2} - Spin and valley degrees of freedom in semiconducting dichalcogenide + proximity effect
- Correlated states in metallic dichalcogenides: density wave and superconductivity
- Black-phosphorus
- Introduction to topological insulators

**NANO-OBJECTS AT THE NANOSCALE (3 ECTS)**

Professors :

- Damien Alloyeau (CR CNRS, MPQ)
- Vincent Repain (Prof. UP, MPQ)
- Hakim Amara (CR ONERA, LEM)

### Program:

**Electronic, magnetic and optical properties down to the molecular scale (9 h)**

Microscopes history and state-of-the-art optical microscopes

Electron microscopy

- Diffraction principle, optical resolution
- Beyond diffraction

Near field microscopy

- A brief history
- General principle of working
- Scanning Tunneling Microscope, Atomic Force Microscope, Scanning Near-field Optical Microscope : signal to noise and resolution

Electronic properties

- Local Density of States
- Quantized levels and wavefunctions mapping
- Superconductivity at the nanoscale

Magnetic properties

- Local Tunnel Magneto-Resistance
- Single atom magnetism, superparamagnetism and non-collinear magnetism

Optical properties

- Optical Luminescence from a nanometer scale junction
- Tip Enhanced Raman Scattering

**Structure-related properties of nanomaterials (9 h)**

- The atomic structure of nanomaterials: a key to understand and optimize their properties

- Revealing the atomic structure and the electronic properties of nanomaterials with a transmission electron microscope

- Image and diffraction
- Phase-contrast microscopy at the atomic scale (high-resolution TEM)
- Electron and X-ray spectroscopies
- Plasmon mapping at the nanoscale

- Studying the dynamics of nanomaterials in realistic environments

- In situ electron microscopy and X-ray scattering methods
- Nucleation and growth phenomena
- Life cycle of nanomaterials in biological media

**Modelization of structural and electronic properties of nanomaterials (6 h)**

### - Different approaches at atomic scale

- DFT calculations
- Tight-binding formalism (diagonalization scheme, order N method, Green function, second moment approximation …)
- Empirical potentials (Lennard Jones, EAM, MEAM, Brenner, Tersoff, …)
- Different types of atomic calculations (static, Molecular Dynamics, Monte Carlo, energy landscape exploration methods, …)

- Electronic properties of nano-objects

- Carbon nanomaterials : nanotube, graphene
- Green functions formalism
- Carbon nanotubes : imaging molecular orbitals
- Doped Graphene : DFT vs Tight-binding

- Structural properties of nano-objects

- Thermodynamic of nanoalloys (driving forces : size, surface energy, ordering tendency, …) : empirical and semi-empirical approaches
- Growth mechanisms (nanorod, carbon nanotube, graphene)

**EXPERIMENTAL PROJECTS IN NANOSCIENCES (6ECTS)**

Professors :

- Maria Luisa Della Rocca (MCF UP, MPQ)
- Fabrice Raineri (MCF UP, C2N)
- R. Braive (MCF UP, C2N)

In this original course, students will get trained with experimental techniques used in nanosciences. During the first three weeks of the Master, students will have to make an experimental project in the nanosciences field like the elaboration and characterization of metallic nanoparticles, the optic of semiconducting laser, the electronic conduction in atomic contacts or organic materials, nanotubes physics, quantum optics…

A specific nanoscience area dedicated to teaching will be available with free of use instruments like an atomic force microscope, a scanning tunnelling microscope, a transmission electron microscope or an optic microscope. All students will also be initiated to clean room techniques during three days of practise.

**Second semester**

**QUANTUM COMPUTING (3ECTS)**

Professors :

- Perola Millman (DR CNRS, MPQ)
- Hélène Perrin (DR CNRS, LPL)

Program:

**Introduction to Quantum Computing (3h)**

- Quantum complexity classes
- Quantum communication
- Universal gates
- Discrete and continuous variables
- Qubit coding

**Trapped ions for quantum computing (3h)**

- Methods for ions trapping
- Cooling of ions
- Microwave quantum logic gates

**Quantum algorithms (6h)**

- Shor algorithm
- Grover algorithm
- Presentation of the IBM qubits project
- Implementation of the Shor algorithm with trapped ions
- Superconducting qubits

**Quantum error correction (6h)**

- Quantum error correction codes
- Computing by superconducting qubits with quantum error correction codes (exp)
- Other platforms for quantum computing (Si, RMN, photons,…)

**Quantum simulation (6h)**

- Dictrete and continuous quantum simulation
- Quantum simulation platforms: quantum gases (bulk or lattice), Rydberg cold atoms in optical lattices, ions, microwaves, polaritons …

**QUANTUM COMUNICATION (3ECTS)**

Professors :

- Eleni Diamanti (CR CNRS, LIP6)
- Sara Ducci (Prof. UP, MPQ)

### Program:

**Theortical Quantum Information **

The qubit and its states

- quick review of the basic quantum formalism (kets, bras and density matrices)
- No cloning theorem and Wiesner’s unforgeable banknotes
- Quantum Key Distribution and BB84 protocol

Quantum Entanglement 1: Definition and some Properties

- Formal definition (as non separable state)
- Apparent Heisenberg inequality violation
- Link with partial trace
- Entanglement detection for pure and mixed states
- Entanglement monogamy and application to QKD
- Partial transpose and its physical meaning

Quantum Entanglement 2: Bell inequalities and Application

- Entanglement is not a limitation of quantum formalism
- Bell inequalities (mainly CHSH)
- GHZ Paradox
- Some Entanglement application
- The 4 Bell States
- Quantum Dense Coding
- Quantum Teleportation

**Device for Quantum Information**

Introduction: Experimental implementation of quantum information : challenges and some famous experiments.

Photon sources: Single photon sources and their characterization : Hanbury Brown and Twiss interferometry, colloidal and grown quantum dots, colored centers in diamonds,..

Entangled photon sources and their characterization : Bell inequality test, density matrix reconstruction, nonlinear dielectric crystals and fibers, quantum dots, semiconductor waveguides,…

Single photon detectors: Photomultipliers, single photons avanlanche photodiodes, supraconducting detectors

Quantum metrology: absolute detector calibration, absolute radiance measurement, polarization mode dispersion, quantum ellipsometry …

Physical implementations of quantum computation: General overview, exemple of trapped ions.